Dr Malcolm Clark is a Principal Scientist (Fisheries) at the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) in Wellington, New Zealand. He initially worked extensively on stock assessment of deepwater fish (in particular orange roughy), before broadening research to more general deep-sea ecosystems and the effects of human activities. He has lead numerous deep-sea research programmes at NIWA with an emphasis on the biology and ecology of fish and benthic invertebrate communities associated with seamounts and other deep-sea habitats. This work, from the tropics to the Antarctic, has, and does, focus on evaluating environmental effects of commercial fishing and potential seabed mining to help managers balance exploitation with conservation of habitat. It has involved extensive international linkages, including FAO, IUCN, the CBD, and the International Seabed Authority. He has published widely, with over 100 journal papers and book chapters.